The economic system used for decision-making by the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and national governments considers only cash-generating activities to be productive.

So Tendai, who lives in Zimbabwe and spends eighteen hours a day providing food, clothing, and shelter for herself and her children, is unproductive.

But Bubba, who sits on a nuclear missile for eight hours a day waiting for an order to push a button and destroy the planet – he’s productive.